Author: Rebat Kumar Dhakal
Abstract: With inclusion agenda gaining currency in public policy discourse, women representation has now been ensured in public institutions, including schools, in Nepal. Informed by the concepts of representation and participation, this paper argues that though women’s participation in decision-making has received significant attention across the world, there are less opportunities for female to engage in governance and decision-making in Nepali community schools. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to examine what perspectives School Management Committee (SMC) members hold towards inclusion of female members. Employing interview and observation techniques during six months of ethnographic fieldwork, I collected data from six members in the SMC (including three female) from a community secondary school in rural Kaski. The findings highlight some surfacing inclusion issues in school governance which are contestable. The study concludes that though descriptive representation of female is ensured, female are yet to ensure their substantive representation in the school board.
Keywords: Gender Inclusion, Participation, School Governance, Ethnography, School Management Committee
Download the PDF Document from here.
Beall, J. (1996). Urban governance: Why gender matters (UNDP Gender in Development Monograph Series, No 1). New York, NY: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Retrieved from https://www.gdrc.org/u-gov/doc-whygendermatters.html
Crowley, N. (2004). Meeting the inclusive challenge. In The inclusive school (pp. 12-20). Limerick, Ireland: Irish National Teachers’ Organization and the Equality Authority.
Goetz, A. M., & Nyamu-Musembi, C. (2008). Voice and women’s empowerment: Mapping a research agenda (Pathways Brief No. 2). Brighton, England: Pathways of Women’s Empowerment.
Goodman, J., & Harrop, S. (2000). Women, educational policy-making and administration in England: Authoritative women since 1880. London, England: Routledge.
Halpin, D. R. (2010). Groups, representation and democracy: Between promise and practice. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.
Kwauk, C., & Bever, S. (2017, November 2). How can teachers be more gender inclusive in the classrooms? Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/education-plus-development/2017/11/02/how-can-teachers-be-more-gender-inclusive-in-the-classroom/
Liyanage, K. (2018). Gender inclusive governance: Representation of women in national and provincial political bodies in Sri Lanka. In A. Ahmed (Ed.), Women in governing institutions in South Asia: Parliament, Civil Service and local government (pp. 117-137). London, England: Palgrave Macmillan.
Madlala, N. C. (2007). Challenges facing women in management: Perceptions of school level women managers in Ogwini Ward of Port Shepstone (Unpublished master’s dissertation). University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.
Ministry of Education.(2016). Education (8th amendment )act 2016. Kathmandu, Nepal: Author.
Mncube, V. (2009). The perceptions of parents of their role in the democratic governance of schools in South Africa: Are they on board? South African Journal of Education, 29, 83-103. Retrieved from http://www.sajournalofeducation.co.za/index.php/saje/article/viewFile/231/138
Nazneen, S., & Mahmud, S. (2015). The gendered politics of securing inclusive development. In S. Hickey, K. Sen, & B.
Bukenya (Eds.), The politics of inclusive development: Interrogating the evidence (pp. 197-230). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Obondoh, A., Nandago, M., &Otiende, E. (2005). Managing our schools today: A practical guide to participatory school governance. Bamako, Mali: Pamoja.
Pande, R., & Ford, D. (2011). Gender and quotas and female leadership: A review (Background Paper for the World Development Report on Gender). Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2012/Resources/7778105-1299699968583/7786210-1322671773271/Pande-Gender-Quotas-April-2011.pdf
Phillips, A. (1995). The politics of presence. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Pitkin, H. F. (1967). The concept of representation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Schley, W., & Schratz, M. (2011). Developing leaders, building networks, changing schools through system leadership. In T. Townsend & J. MacBeath (Eds.), International handbook of leadership for learning (pp. 267-296). London, England: Springer.
Sharma, T. N. (2008). Structures and mechanisms of community participation in school management. Journal of Education and Research, 1(1), 72-85.
Sigdel, S., & Sharma, S. S. (2013). Inclusive governance (Policy Brief). Kathmandu, Nepal: UKAid. Retrieved from http://www.edgroup.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/ESP-IG-Policy-Brief-Final.pdf
Silver, H. (2015). The contexts of social inclusion (DESA Working Paper No. 144). New York, NY: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
Silverman, D. (2006). Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analyzing talk, text, and interaction (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
United Nations. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. New York, NY: Author.
Virginia Center for Inclusive Communities. (n.d.). Mission, vision, and core values. Retrieved from http://www.inclusiveva.org/aboutus/mission/
International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies
ISSN 2520-0968 (Online), ISSN 2409-1294 (Print), June 2019, Vol.6, No.1